: fall elective in poetic analysis (for example, readings in Eliot, Hughes and Moore, or in Brooks, Lorde, Clifton and Nelson, or in Fu, Dickinson, Walcott and Ali); a required trimester on drama, including King Lear
; and a spring elective on narrative works (for example, readings in Levi, Otsuka and Coates, or in Joyce, Ferrante and Nunez, or in Milton, or in Mistry and Lahiri).MATHEMATICS
PRECALCULUS AND AN INTRODUCTION TO DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS: extended study of functions and trigonometry begun in Class X. Additional topics may include vectors, conic sections, parametric equations, polar coordinates, probability and statistics, and sequences and series. Calculus topics include limits and derivatives. This course prepares students for the study of AB Calculus.
PRECALCULUS EXTENDED AND DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS: extended study of functions and trigonometry begun in Class X, as well as vectors, conic sections, parametric equations, polar coordinates and graphs, probability and statistics, and sequences and series. Calculus topics include limits, derivatives and applications of derivatives. This course prepares students for the study of BC Calculus.
ADVANCED CALCULUS: differential and integral calculus of functions of one variable with applications; power series. Students wishing to take the College Board AP BC Calculus exam will find that this course provides suitable preparation.
STATISTICS AND STATISTICAL MODELING: introduction to the practice of statistics. Topics include organization of data; probability and random variables; and drawing inferences from data. Computers and calculators are used extensively.
INTERSCHOOL GAME THEORY (half credit; throughout the year): theoretical analysis of game theory taught through applications in economics, politics, business, evolutionary biology, religion, philosophy, computer science and sports, as well as through games such as poker and chess. Quantitative models are developed for strategic situations, and analysis includes optimization and graphical analysis. This course is offered through the Interschool consortium.
INTERSCHOOL NUMBER THEORY (half credit; throughout the year): The study of number theory delves into the foundations of mathematics to understand the integers, their properties and the application of these ideas to other areas of mathematics. Topics may include infinity of primes, the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, the Euclidean algorithm, the Greek notion of incommensurable lengths, alternate number systems and their properties, repeating decimals and their connection to infinite series, modular arithmetic, and notions of infinity that arise from counting the integers. This course is offered through the Interschool consortium.
INTERSCHOOL PROBLEM SOLVING (half credit; throughout the year): A collaborative exploration of problem-solving skills and strategies including topics from combinatorics, number theory, advanced algebra, geometry, probability and graph theory. Problems studied include examples from past AIME and US Math Olympiad competitions. This course is offered through the Interschool consortium.HISTORY
[The following list of electives is representative; some may not be offered in 2021–2022.]
HISTORY OF CHINA, KOREA AND JAPAN: a survey of the history of the region, starting with the history of the 20th and 21st centuries in China and including China’s world role, then looking back chronologically at political, social and cultural developments in China, Korea and Japan, and culminating in consideration of the disparate Chinese, Korean and Japanese responses to European incursions in the modern period, the legacies of World War II and the division of Korea, and the position of Korea and Japan in the world today.
MODERN EUROPEAN HISTORY: a survey of European history from the Renaissance to the present, with particular attention to nationalism and other sources of identity (open also to XII).
MODERN LATIN AMERICA: an introduction to issues and themes in the history of Latin America since 1800 in which students explore political, economic, social and cultural developments that characterize the region as a whole, while keeping in mind the considerable variation among the countries of which it consists (open also to XII).
HISTORY OF WARFARE: a survey of the history of war from the gunpowder revolution of the 15th century to the present. Students will examine the development of modern armies, military technology and insurgency warfare (open also to XII).
MODERNISM IN ART: a study of significant developments in art beginning with the French Revolution up until the present (open also to XII).
LAW, ECONOMICS AND PUBLIC POLICY: an introduction to the history and structures of American civil and criminal law, with a focus on the ways that law and economic thinking structure foreign and domestic policies (open also to XII).
THE UNITED STATES POST-1945: a seminar-style research intensive course in which students evaluate historical events and ideas from 1945 on using advanced research methods to examine the relationship between the recent past and the present.
URBAN HISTORY: an exploration of different ways of studying and analyzing urban environments locally and globally, using New York City as an initial case study, then moving to an exploration of the urban world outside the US and concluding with a consideration of mid-twentieth century ideas of urban planning and examples of utopian cities (open also to XII).
WORLD ART: a survey of world art from prehistoric through the contemporary period. Formal, contextual and methodological problems in art history are explored in a wide range of cultures. Regular visits to local museums are part of the course (open also to XII).
MODERN AFRICA: an exploration of twentieth-century African history, giving special attention to political, military and religious history (open also to XII).SCIENCE
ADVANCED BIOLOGY: investigation of biological processes where major life innovations are placed in chronological and evolutionary context. Topics include ecology, gene regulation, cancer, bioethics, immunology; laboratory investigations include polymerase chain reaction and a fetal pig dissection; statistical analysis of data is stressed. Students create an in-depth research proposal in a field of their choice. Prerequisites: Biology and Chemistry (open also to XII).
ADVANCED CHEMISTRY: a deeper exploration of equilibrium, acids and bases, and electrochemistry introduced in Chemistry as well as new topics such as kinetics, thermodynamics, redox titrations, molecular architecture and orbital hybridization. Prerequisites: Biology and Chemistry (open also to XII).
CHEMISTRY: see Class X.
PHYSICS: the investigation of the nature of forces and energy and their interactions with matter. Topics include mechanical, thermal, wave, electromagnetic and nuclear energy (open also to XII).
ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY (full-year non-lab course): exploration of the role of science, economics and government policy in developing an environmentally sustainable world. Topics include human population growth, energy production, climate change, freshwater resources, agriculture, fisheries, waste management and biodiversity (open also to XII).MODERN LANGUAGES
FRENCH IV: a consideration of classic and contemporary French literature and culture with an emphasis on speaking and writing. Students learn contemporary idioms, review grammar, and read and interpret texts from a variety of sources.
FRENCH IV COMPREHENSIVE: greater independence in the use of the language through the study of complex grammatical structures and extension of vocabulary; analysis of cultural and linguistic materials; discussion and debate.
MANDARIN IV: extensive reading of essays, stories, and newspaper and magazine articles; discussion of current events; analytical and creative writing; exploration of contemporary culture through television and other media.
COMPREHENSIVE SPANISH III: for students who began in Class IX, continued study of grammar and, in particular, of advanced structures; readings from short stories, novels and adapted versions of literary masterpieces.
SPANISH IV: for students who began in Class V, continued formal study of selected short stories, poetry and nonfiction about the history of Spain and Latin America; reinforcement of grammar usage and literary analysis reinforced through writing assignments and oral communication activities.CLASSICS
LATIN IV: selections from Ovid’s Metamorphoses, Ars Amatoria and Heroides, and from the poems of Catullus.
GREEK I (half credit; throughout the year): introduction to Attic Greek. Topics include the principles of word formation and syntax, Aesop’s fables and the life of Alexander the Great (open also to XII).ART
STUDIO ART (half credit; throughout the year): advanced work in the studio with in-depth exploration of various drawing and painting media. One museum study assignment is required.
ART INTENSIVE (half credit; fall or spring semester): for curious and committed students, an opportunity to explore the visual arts and self-expression through a range of traditional and contemporary media, including painting, drawing, printmaking and simple bookmaking. Thought-provoking and interpretive concepts will be examined in a relaxed, inclusive studio setting focusing on student-driven projects.
DRAWING (half credit; fall or spring semester): drawing as a way of thinking; an expansion of the student’s visual literacy and technique through intensive exposure and observation-based exercises. Fundamental concepts from earlier years are again brought to bear. Class critiques and one museum study assignment is required.DRAMA: PLAYWRITING
(half credit; spring semester): introduction to the art and craft of playwriting. Students write and edit their own short plays; at the end of the semester there is a lightly staged presentation to the public using student actors. MUSIC
: see Class IX. TECHNOLOGY: INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SCIENCE
(half credit): introduction to the concepts of computer science utilizing the Python programming language. Topics include recursion, computer security, algorithm complexity and game programming.PHYSICAL EDUCATION
: see Class IX. CO-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES
see page 19 of Course of Study. COMMUNITY SERVICE
(required of all students in Class XI): see page 38 of Course of Study. JUNIOR SEMINAR
(required of all students in Class XI): a yearlong class that encompasses health education, life skills, college advising and the transition to college. POETRY WORKSHOP
: see Class X. SCIENCE RESEARCH SEMINAR
: see Class X.